It is estimated that about 4.5 million people are on community supervision, to include probation and parole, which far outnumber the 2.3 million individuals behind bars. According to the Bureau of Justice Statistics, 28 percent of people on probation and 38 percent of people on parole are African Americans.
However, African Americans make up only 13 percent of the US adult population. In 2018, African Americans were 2.6 times more likely to be on probation and 4 times more likely to be on parole, as compared to Caucasians, as reported by Michael Gelb. Michael Gelb, Racial Disparities Still Mar Probation, Parole Despite 14% Decline: Report, The Crime Rep. (Aug. 13, 2020).