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THE TOP TEN STREET SOLDIERS OF THE CIVIL RIGHT MOVEMENT
'THE RUNNERS AND GUNNERS'
1. Bill Ayers, Bernardine dohrn - Weather underground. the organization's express political goal was to create a revolutionary party to overthrow what it saw as U.S. imperialism. The WUO was classified by the FBI as "domestic terrorist group". With revolutionary positions characterized by black power and opposition to the Vietnam War. the WUO took part in actions such as the jailbreak of Timothy Leary in 1970. The "Days of Rage", the WUO's first public demonstration, was an October 1969 riot in Chicago timed to coincide with the trial of the Chicago Seven. In 1970, the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government under the name "Weather Underground Organization". In the 1970s, the WUO conducted a bombing campaign targeting government buildings along with several banks. Some attacks were preceded by evacuation warnings, along with threats identifying the particular matter that the attack was intended to protest. Three members of the group were killed in an accidental Greenwich Village townhouse explosion, but no one were killed in any of the terrorist attacks. The WUO communiqué issued in connection with the bombing of the United States Capitol on March 1, 1971 indicated that the bombing was conducted "in protest of the U.S. invasion of Laos". The WUO asserted that its May 19, 1972 bombing of the Pentagon was carried out "in retaliation for the U.S. bombing raid in Hanoi". The WUO announced that its January 29, 1975 bombing of the United States Department of State building was an action taken "in response to the escalation in Vietnam".The WUO began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973. By 1977, the organization was defunct.
2. Jeff Fort - Fort is currently serving a 168 year prison sentence after being convicted of conspiracy and weapons charges in 1987 for plotting to commit attacks inside the U.S. in exchange for weapons and $2.5 million from Libya
3. John Africa. - Founder of MOVE, a Philadelphia-based, self-proclaimed predominantly black organization active from the early 1970s and still active. He was killed during an armed standoff in 1985 with the Philadelphia Police Department. He adopted the name "John Africa" because he believed Africa to be the place where life originated. After MOVE and John Africa moved to a new location on Osage Ave. in West Philadelphia, law enforcement officials obtained permission from the Mayor's office to evict members of MOVE due to neighborhood complaints of obscenity. On May 13, 1985, they attempted to evict MOVE. The eviction developed into an armed standoff with MOVE.
During the raid, the Philadelphia Police Department head of bomb disposal, on board a Pennsylvania State Police helicopter, dropped a satchel containing a gel-based explosive on a fortified bunker occupied by members of MOVE. The resulting explosion started a fire that resulted in the destruction of 65 homes in the neighborhood. The order was given by city officials to "let the fire burn" and consequently members were not able to escape the home. There is a debate as to why this is the case; members of MOVE claim they were met by open fire outside the house. Participating officers claim this is incorrect.
The explosion, fire, and shootout killed most MOVE members, including Africa, five other adults and five children. Only Ramona and Birdie Africa survived, but both were severely burned. Birdie was released but Ramona was convicted and sentenced to serve a maximum sentence of 7 years in prison. She served the full time.
4. Stokely Carmichael. - SNICC, while attending Howard University. He eventually developed the Black Power movement, first while leading the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC), later serving as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and lastly as a leader of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP). Carmichael was one of the original SNCC freedom riders of 1961 under Diane Nash's leadership. He became a major voting rights activist in Mississippi and Alabama after being mentored by Ella Baker and Bob Moses. armichael chose to develop independent black political organizations, such as the Lowndes County Freedom Organization and, for a time, the national Black Panther Party. Inspired by Malcolm X's example, he articulated a philosophy of "black power", and popularized it both by provocative speeches and more sober writings. Carmichael became one of the most popular and controversial Black leaders of the late 1960s. J. Edgar Hoover, director of the FBI, secretly identified Carmichael as the man most likely to succeed Malcolm X as America's "black messiah". The FBI targeted him for personal destruction through its COINTELPRO program, and Carmichael fled to Africa in 1968. He re-established himself in Ghana, and Guinea by 1969, where he adopted the new name of Kwame Ture.
5. Bobby Seal - American political activist. He and fellow activist Huey P. Newton co-founded the Black Panther Party. While at college, Bobby Seale joined the Afro-American Association (AAA), a group on campus devoted to advocating Black separatism. "I wanted to be an engineer when I went to college, but I got shifted right away since I became interested in American Black History and trying to solve some of the problems." Seale's objective was to teach the youth in the program Black American History and teach them a degree of responsibility towards the people living in their communities. Seal then co-founded, in October 1966 to create the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, which adopted the late activist's slogan "freedom by any means necessary" as their own. Bobby Seale was one of the original "Chicago Eight" defendants charged with conspiracy and inciting a riot in the wake of the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago.
6. Huey P. Newton - In 1967, he was involved in a shootout which led to the death of a police officer and in 1974 was accused of shooting a woman, leading to her death. During this time, he continued to pursue graduate studies, eventually earning a Ph.D. in social philosophy. In 1989 he was murdered in Oakland, California by Tyrone Robinson, a member of the Black Guerrilla Family.
Newton attended Merritt College, where he earned an Associate of Arts degree in 1966.
At its inception on October 15, 1966, the Black Panther Party's core practice was its armed citizens' patrols to monitor the behavior of officers of the Oakland Police Department, a practice later known as "copwatching", and challenge police brutality in the city. In 1969, community social programs became a core activity of party members The Black Panther Party instituted a variety of community social programs, most extensively the Free Breakfast for Children Programs, to address issues like food injustice, and community health clinics for education and treatment of diseases including sickle cell anemia, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS.
Black Panther Party members were involved in many fatal firefights with police: Huey Newton allegedly killed officer John Frey in 1967, and Eldridge Cleaver led an ambush in 1968 of Oakland police officers, in which two officers were wounded and Panther Bobby Hutton was killed. The party suffered many internal conflicts, resulting in the murders of Alex Rackley and Betty Van Patter.
Newton continued his education, studying at San Francisco Law School, and the University of California at Santa Cruz, where he earned a bachelor's degree. He was a member of Phi Beta Sigma Fraternity, Inc. He later continued his studies and in 1980, he completed a PhD in social philosophy at Santa Cruz.
In 1967, the Mulford Act was passed by the California legislature and signed into law by governor Ronald Reagan, establishing strict gun laws that stripped legal ownership of firearms from Black Panther members and prevented all citizens, black and white, from carrying firearms in public.
In his autobiography, Revolutionary Suicide, he wrote,
During those long years in Oakland public schools, I did not have one teacher who taught me anything relevant to my own life or experience. Not one instructor ever awoke in me a desire to learn more or to question or to explore the worlds of literature, science, and history. All they did was try to rob me of the sense of my own uniqueness and worth, and in the process nearly killed my urge to inquire.