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THE TOP TEN STREET SOLDIERS OF THE CIVIL RIGHT MOVEMENT

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THE TOP TEN STREET SOLDIERS OF THE CIVIL RIGHT MOVEMENT

'THE RUNNERS AND GUNNERS'


1. Bill Ayers, Bernardine dohrn - Weather underground. the organization's express political goal was to create a revolutionary party to overthrow what it saw as U.S. imperialism. The WUO was classified by the FBI as "domestic terrorist group". With revolutionary positions characterized by black power and opposition to the Vietnam War. the WUO took part in actions such as the jailbreak of Timothy Leary in 1970. The "Days of Rage", the WUO's first public demonstration, was an October 1969 riot in Chicago timed to coincide with the trial of the Chicago Seven. In 1970, the group issued a "Declaration of a State of War" against the United States government under the name "Weather Underground Organization". In the 1970s, the WUO conducted a bombing campaign targeting government buildings along with several banks. Some attacks were preceded by evacuation warnings, along with threats identifying the particular matter that the attack was intended to protest. Three members of the group were killed in an accidental Greenwich Village townhouse explosion, but no one were killed in any of the terrorist attacks. The WUO communiqué issued in connection with the bombing of the United States Capitol on March 1, 1971 indicated that the bombing was conducted "in protest of the U.S. invasion of Laos". The WUO asserted that its May 19, 1972 bombing of the Pentagon was carried out "in retaliation for the U.S. bombing raid in Hanoi". The WUO announced that its January 29, 1975 bombing of the United States Department of State building was an action taken "in response to the escalation in Vietnam".The WUO began to disintegrate after the United States reached a peace accord in Vietnam in 1973. By 1977, the organization was defunct.


2. Jeff Fort - Fort is currently serving a 168 year prison sentence after being convicted of conspiracy and weapons charges in 1987 for plotting to commit attacks inside the U.S. in exchange for weapons and $2.5 million from Libya






3. John Africa. - Founder of MOVE, a Philadelphia-based, self-proclaimed predominantly black organization active from the early 1970s and still active. He was killed during an armed standoff in 1985 with the Philadelphia Police Department. He adopted the name "John Africa" because he believed Africa to be the place where life originated. After MOVE and John Africa moved to a new location on Osage Ave. in West Philadelphia, law enforcement officials obtained permission from the Mayor's office to evict members of MOVE due to neighborhood complaints of obscenity. On May 13, 1985, they attempted to evict MOVE. The eviction developed into an armed standoff with MOVE.

During the raid, the Philadelphia Police Department head of bomb disposal, on board a Pennsylvania State Police helicopter, dropped a satchel containing a gel-based explosive on a fortified bunker occupied by members of MOVE. The resulting explosion started a fire that resulted in the destruction of 65 homes in the neighborhood. The order was given by city officials to "let the fire burn" and consequently members were not able to escape the home. There is a debate as to why this is the case; members of MOVE claim they were met by open fire outside the house. Participating officers claim this is incorrect.

The explosion, fire, and shootout killed most MOVE members, including Africa, five other adults and five children. Only Ramona and Birdie Africa survived, but both were severely burned. Birdie was released but Ramona was convicted and sentenced to serve a maximum sentence of 7 years in prison. She served the full time.


4. Stokely Carmichael. - SNICC, while attending Howard University. He eventually developed the Black Power movement, first while leading the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee(SNCC), later serving as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party (BPP), and lastly as a leader of the All-African People's Revolutionary Party (A-APRP). Carmichael was one of the original SNCC freedom riders of 1961 under Diane Nash's leadership. He became a major voting rights activist in