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This article offers a psychoanalytic explanation of why blacks commit a disproportionate number—half—of violent crimes in the United States. Slavery and its crippling psychological effects are discussed, as are the devastating psychological consequences of the hundred years of discrimination, segregation, and anti-black terror that followed. The conclusion reached is that black aggression was stimulated inordinately by all this, while simultaneously the black superego was decisively weakened and rendered incomplete and conflicted. These psychological difficulties have persisted and become endemic among the poor, uneducated, lower-class blacks who populate the rotting core of many American cities. Unlike their parents and grandparents, however, they no longer fear imminent bodily harm or death at the hands of violent whites and no longer turn their aggression back upon themselves and become depressed, but feel free to externalize their aggression in periodic riots and violent crime. The solutions suggested in this article include the elimination of social policies that stimulate the aggression of blacks by threatening their sense of self-worth, and the promotion of social policies that help to strengthen their superegos; e.g., minimizing the number of fatherless black households. Ways of using the criminal law to reinforce the black superego are also considered.
The relationship between race and crime in the United States has been a topic of public controversy and scholarly debate for more than a century. The crime rate varies between racial groups. Most homicides in the United States are intraracial - Within race (group of people); of or by members of the same race. Research argues that the over-representation of some minorities in the criminal justice system can be explained by socioeconomic factors as well as racial discrimination by law enforcement and the judicial system.
In the United States, crime data are collected from three major sources:
law enforcement agency crime reports, collected monthly by the Federal Bureau of Investigation and processed annually as Uniform Crime Reports (UCR) victimization surveys, collected biannually by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and processed annually in the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) self-report surveys.
Arrests, by Race and Ethnicity, 2017
In 2017, 68.9 percent of all individuals arrested were White, 27.2 percent were Black or African American, and 3.9 percent were of other races.
Of arrestees for whom ethnicity was reported, 18.1 percent were Hispanic or Latino. Of all juveniles (persons under the age of 18) arrested in 2017, 61.6 percent were White, 34.9 percent were Black or African American, and 3.5 percent were of other races.
Of juvenile arrestees for whom ethnicity was reported, 21.8 percent were Hispanic or Latino. Of all adults arrested in 2017, 69.5 percent were White, 26.6 percent were Black or African American, and 3.9 percent were of other races.
Of adult arrestees for whom ethnicity was reported, 17.8 were Hispanic or Latino. White individuals were arrested more often for violent crimes than individuals of any other race and accounted for 58.5 percent of those arrests.
Of adults arrested for murder, 52.5 percent were Black or African American, 44.8 percent were White, and 2.8 percent were of other races. Black or African American juveniles comprised 50.9 percent of all juveniles arrested for violent crimes. White juveniles accounted for 56.2 percent of all juveniles arrested for property crimes.
Of juveniles arrested for drug abuse violations, 74.3 percent were White. White juveniles comprised 54.2 percent of juveniles arrested for aggravated assault and 57.4 percent of juveniles arrested for larceny-theft.
Murder and non-negligent manslaughter -
White: 4,188, Black: 5,025, American Indian or Alaska Native: 108, Asian: 127, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: 20,
White: 12,187 Black: 5,182 American Indian or Alaska Native: 322, Asian 307, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: 65 Aggravated assault -
White: 188,087 Black: 101,513, American Indian or Alaska Native: 7,531 Asian: 4,881, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: 929,
Violent crime - White: 236,590, Black: 151,744, American Indian or Alaska Native: 8,640, Asian: 5,979, Native Hawaiia n or Other Pacific Islander: 1,283, Sex offenses (except rape and prostitution) - White: 26,615 Black: 9,355, American Indian or Alaska Native: 691, Asian: 741, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: 116, Offenses against the family and children - White: 46,926, Black: 20,106, American Indian or Alaska Native: 4,067, Asian: 534, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander: 23,
Hate Crimes -
48.6 percent were victims of crimes motivated by their offenders’ anti-Black or African American bias.
17.1 percent were victims of anti-White bias.
10.9 percent were victims of anti-Hispanic or Latino bias.
6.3 percent were victims of anti-American Indian or Alaska Native bias.
4.5 percent were victims of bias against a group of individuals in which more than one race was represented (anti-multiple races, group).
3.3 percent were victims of anti-Asian bias.
2.6 percent were victims of anti-Arab bias.
0.4 percent (18 individuals) were victims of anti-Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander bias.
6.4 percent were victims of anti-Other Race/Ethnicity/Ancestry bias.